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Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Survivors After Fontan Operation: A Case–Control Study

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing in osteoarticular infections with a focus on pediatrics: current concepts and clinical applications

Wayne J. Franklin, MD, FACC

Liver injury is universal in patients who have undergone Fontan palliation for complex congenital heart disease and results in fibrosis and cirrhosis.1 Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) can be rarely complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),2–4 risk factors for which are not fully elucidated. We aim to identify clinical characteristics associated with the development of HCC in adult single ventricle patients with Fontan circulation.

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